In August 2016, Environmental Science & Technology published an article about preventing or reducing harmful algae blooms in freshwater lakes. "Reducing Phosphorus to Curb Lake Eutrophication is a Success” was co-written by several lake scientists from the United States & Canada with D. Schindler (Edmonton, Alberta) as the lead author. (read & download the article here)
The article seems to say that:
1) Phosphorus is the the only nutrient that matters to control cyanobacteria harmful algae bloom (HABs).
2) Any further discussion of nitrogen as a nutrient in this industry is a waste of time.
3) Given enough time (maybe 10-30 years), watershed protection to reduce phosphorus infow to lakes will stop cyanobacteria blooms.
The article lists about 35 lakes in the world as evidence to support the claim that phosphorus reduction can “recover" a lake. There is not much discussion about point sources versus non-point sources in the article; but usually 90% of phosphorus inflow to lake is non-point source, so the clear implication is that watershed protection is the only way to restore a lake.
Schindler has been saying for years that HABs are only about phosphorus; whereas, Hans Paerl (North Carolina, USA) says sometimes HABs are caused by excess phosphorus, and/or excess nitrogen, and/or other factors. This article seemed to be a direct slam to Paerl continuing the rivalry between the two, Schindler and Paerl.